Exploring the Pisgah Craters in the Mojave

Willie controls and tests Ramon’s movements as the team deliberates how best to navigate the rover in the caves.
Alberto explores the lava tubes and gets Ramon ready to take samples.
Left: Ramon scans the cave walls for signs of life with a 532 nm laser Raman probe, while the team collects data remotely. Top right: The Raman shift in wave numbers of the pale white mineral deposit previously characterized by Pandora. The Raman activity between 900 and 1100 cm-1 is characteristic of sulfate and phosphate anions. Bottom right: A digital 3D map of a lava tube that Ramon explored.